An Introduction to ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Networks

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The standards for ATM had been 1st created in the mid 1980s. The objective was to design a single networking approach that could transport genuine-time video and audio as nicely as image files, text and e-mail.


ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) has been proposed as an enabling network technologies to assistance broadband integrated services. It was developed to offer a single platform for the transmission of voice, video and data at specified superior of service and at speeds varying from fractional T1 to Gbps.


At present voice, data and video are transported by unique networks. Voice is transported by the public telephone network, and information by a range of packet-switched networks. Video is transported by networks based on coaxial cables, satellites and radio waves. ATM is designed to integrate all these services together.


Even so, ATM itself is not a complete, stand-alone networking typical rather, ATM defines a normal layer of interoperability referred to as the ATM layer, on which varied services ranging from telephony and video conferencing to TCP/IP data networking and multimedia can be delivered.


The ATM layer defines a common format utilized for switching and multiplexing bit streams from one end of an ATM network to a further. The ATM layer then makes use of the hardware facilities of lower layers to deliver the bits across individual links in a network.


A selection of such physical layers have been defined, most of which are based on existing standards in order to maximally leverage existing technologies and installed bases.


Technically, ATM is a cell relay, packet switching network and information link layer protocol which encodes data targeted traffic into modest fixed-sized cells (53 bytes 48 bytes of data and five bytes of header information).


ATM offers data link layer services that run over Layer 1 links. This differs from other technologies based on packet-switched networks(such as IP or Ethernet), in which variable sized packets (identified as frames when referencing Layer 2) are made use of.


ATM is a connection-oriented technologies, in which a logical connection is established in between the two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins.


ATM has confirmed pretty successful in the WAN scenario and countless telecommunication providers have implemented ATM in their wide-region network cores. Quite a few ADSL implementations also use ATM. However, ATM has failed to obtain wide use an a LAN technologies, and its complexity has held back its full deployment as the single integrating network technology in the way that its inventors original intended.


Why? The cause is that there will usually be both brand-new and obsolescent link-layer technologies, especially in the LAN region, not all of them fit neatly into the synchronous optical networking model for which ATM was created.


For that reason, a protocol is needed to deliver a unifying layer over each ATM and non-ATM link layers, as ATM itself can not fit that role. IP already does that hence, there is regularly no point in implementing ATM at the network layer.


In the early 1990s, ATM was as soon as posed to replace Ethernet and IP networks. But Ethernet made a dramatic come-back when it was defined to run at 100Mbps and later on at 1Gbps. As a result, ATM lost the battle to the "desktop".

Title Post: An Introduction to ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Networks
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Author: Dede Purnama

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